دانلود انگلیسی محاوره ای یک نگرش تعاملی، جمعی، و فکورانه و توسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در کلاس درس ESLانگلیسی محاوره ای: یک نگرش تعاملی، جمعی، و فکورانهتوسعه مهارتهای مباحثه ای در کلاس درس ESLفرمت فایل:Word (قابل ویرایش و آماده پرینت)تعداد صفحه:45ف...
گرامر زبان انگلیسی برای آزمون تافل و آیلتس
قیمت: 8000 تومان
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :6
A process for improving the probability that an organization will be successful.
More specifically, Organization Design is a formal, guided process for integrating the people, information and technology of an organization. It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve. Through the design process, organizations act to improve the probability that the collective efforts of members will be successful.
Typically, design is approached as an internal change under the guidance of an external facilitator. Managers and members work together to define the needs of the organization then create systems to meet those needs most effectively. The facilitator assures that a systematic process is followed and encourages creative thinking.
Western organizations have been heavily influenced by the command and control structure of ancient military organizations, and by the turn of the century introduction of Scientific Management. Most organizations today are designed as a bureaucracy in which authority and responsibility are arranged in a hierarchy. Within the hierarchy rules, policies, and procedures are uniformly and impersonally applied to exert control over member behaviors. Activity is organized within sub-units (bureaus, or departments) in which people perform specialized functions such as manufacturing, sales, or accounting. People who perform similar tasks are clustered together
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :14
Complex products and global integrations add additional challenges to a companies product information management process. In order to avoid delays and future issues, even small local projects to automate product information management need to think a bit globally and longer term.
This white paper provides the reader with an overview of the typical issues a company has to face when working to integrate and automate its product information, with the idea that understanding the problem is the first step in avoiding or solving it.
The problems discussed include:
Challenges in Product Management
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :6
Realization of income and separation from capital
The concepts of economic income and realized income have been subjects of controversy for a long time in corporate accounting and related areas. Those arguments have been repeated in a variety of forms, not only in attempts to reconsider the concept of income in the light of economic income but also in the related area such as taxation on corporate income and restrictions on dividend for the company law purpose. In this section, take a quick look at an early judicial precedent in US 6), as a clue to a review of the process of interaction of income concept and establishment of realization concepts.
The judicial precedent at issue is the case of Eisner vs. Macomber ruled by the US Federal Supreme Court in 1920. Although this case was originally a dispute over the provision of the Internal Revenue Code that deemed stock dividends as taxable income, it became a leading case that left a significant impact to posterity, in that it established the conceptual norms such as what constitutes income. The court decision set out the interpretation of the realization concept that a mere increase in the value of capital is not enough to constitute income if it is not separated from capital, thereby denied that stock dividend is income
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :19
www.prospects.ac.uk/links/occupations Page 1 of 4
Considerable experience is normally required to become a fully-fledged production manager. Most people in such a
position have usually worked in subsidiary roles, such as inventory control, configuration analysis, material planning or as
Nowadays, most entrants to the profession have a degree or HND, but there are also opportunities for non-graduates
who are prepared to study for professional qualifications, such as those offered by The Institute of Operations
Management (IOM) or the Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM).
A degree/HND in one of the following disciplines is desirable, depending on the type of industry you wish to work in:
electrical and electronic engineering;
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :17
Operations Research Analysts
?Operations research? and ?management science? are terms that are used interchangeably to describe the discipline of applying advanced analytical techniques to help make better decisions and to solve problems. The procedures of operations research have been used effectively during wartime in areas such as deploying radar, searching for enemy submarines, and getting supplies to where they were needed most. New analytical methods have been developed, and numerous peacetime applications have emerged, leading to the use of operations research in many industries and occupations.
The prevalence of operations research in the Nation?s economy reflects the growing complexity of managing large organizations that require the effective use of money, materials, equipment, and people. Operations research analysts help determine better ways to coordinate these elements by applying analytical methods from mathematics, science, and engineering. Analysts often find multiple possible solutions for meeting the particular goals of a project. These potential solutions are then presented to managers, who choose the course of action that they perceive to be best for the organization.
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :11
A Brief History of Operations Research
Operations Research has had undertakings as early as the third century when Hieron, King of Syracuse, asked Archimedes to devise means for breaking the Roman naval siege of his city but more clear examples of OR were evident during WWI when political figures made attempts to analyze military operations mathematically. World War II marked the beginning of Operations Research as an organized research. Britain was the first to utilize OR because they already had an OR organization in existence. OR finally crossed the Atlantic to the America’s a few months later as both the Army Air Forces and the Navy began work to analyze different war time situations. After the war, OR proved to be very successful that many military operations were faced with considerations on how to continue their field of study and groups were formed within the military structure to continue research. The economic situation that the war had caused began conversion of industries from wartime production to production of goods for the private consumer. The transition from war to peace created a highly competitive economy. Businesses needed to be efficient and profitable. This caused business to analyze their business operations and thus OR found another home.
As discussed above, OR began in the military and then emerged in all aspects of government. It then spread to the banking and financial districts, airlines, and car manufactures. Now it is present in every industry. Operations Research involves many facets of discipline and tends to consider new courses of action to take that make changes to an organization over long periods of time. As one knows, change doesn’t happen over-night.
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :12
Cost accounting has long been used to help managers understand the costs of running a business. Modern cost accounting originated during the industrial revolution, when the complexities of running a large scale business led to the development of systems for recording and tracking costs to help business owners and managers make decisions.
In the early industrial age, most of the costs incurred by a business were what modern accountants call "variable costs" because they varied directly with the amount of production. Money was spent on labor, raw materials, power to run a factory, etc. in direct proportion to production. Managers could simply total the variable costs for a product and use this as a rough guide for decision-making.
Some costs tend to remain the same even during busy periods, unlike variable costs which rise and fall with volume of work. Over time, the importance of these "fixed costs" has become more important to managers. Examples of fixed costs include the depreciation of plant and equipment, and the cost of departments such as maintenance, tooling, production control, purchasing, quality control, storage and handling, plant supervision and engineering. In the early twentieth century, these costs were of little importance to most businesses. However, in the twenty-first century, these costs are often more important than the variable cost of a product, and allocating them to a broad range of products can lead to bad decision making. Managers must understand fixed costs in order to make decisions about products and pricing.
For example: A company produced railway coaches and had only one product. To make each coach, the company needed to purchase $60 of raw materials and components, and pay 6 laborers $40 each. Therefore, total variable cost for each coach was $300. Knowing that making a coach required spending $300, managers knew they couldn't sell below that price without losing money on each coach. Any price above $300 became a contribution to the fixed costs of the company. If the fixed costs were, say, $1000 per month for rent, insurance and owner's salary, the company could therefore sell 5 coaches per month for a total of $3000 (priced at $600 each), or 10 coaches for a total of $4500 (priced at $450 each), and make a profit of $500 in both cases.
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :8
Assets have three essential characteristics:
It is not necessary, in the financial accounting sense of the term, for control of access to the benefit to be legally enforceable for a resource to be an asset, provided the entity can control its use by other means.
It is important to understand that in an accounting sense an asset is not the same as ownership. In accounting, ownership is described by the term "equity," (see the related term shareholders' equity). Assets are equal to "equity" plus "liabilities."
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :7
The objective of accounting and the meaning of mark-to-market valuation
Now, let us consider about relationship between the concept of realized income and valuation gains or losses on financial assets. Before going on to the discussion of this issue, it would be helpful to compare the realized income and economic income and reconfirm the relationship between them. As already discussed in detail, with regard to financial assets in the proper sense of the word, the results of investments would be measured at the same amount under both of the two income concepts. In cases of financial assets that are mere investments of surplus money and can always be freely sold by the piece, their values are equal to the market prices no matter who holds them and a change in their market prices is in substance same as realization of cash flow. On the contrary, in cases of physical assets used in business, whereas changes in the market value and the value of goodwill affect the economic income, they will not affect the realized income until they are realized as cash flows. In this process, goodwill is generated as an expectation of future results of business investments and while it disappears as time passes all or part of it is transformed into the value of tangible assets. This process is irrelevant to realized income, although important to the economic income
فرمت : WORD تعداد صفحه :36
اربرد آزمایشهای کنترل فازی مستقیم و توافقی برای دو اتصال قابل انعطاف روبات که در فصل 3 و6 توصیف شده است نشان می دهد که پیشرفت قابل توجهی بیش از مورد غیرکنترلی نشان داده شده در شمارة 302 در صفحة 127 دارد ، اما به طور کلی ، بهترین راه ممکن نیست . کنتلر فازی مستقیم منفصل در فصل 3 شرح داده شده ، یک زمان اوج (بالا رفتن) سریع دارد . اما ضرر آن داشتن یک فراجهش بزرگ و نوسانهایی نزدیک نقطة تنظیم می باشد . پیوستن دو کنترلر از طریق سیگنال سرعت نقطة پایانی مشکلات فراجهش و نوسان را بطور متنابهی کاهش می دهد اما پاسخ کمی آرامتر میسازد . رویهم رفته بعلت کاهش سرعت اتصال آرنج تا وقتیکه اتصال شانه سریع حرکند کند ، این کاهش سرعت در اتصال آرنج برای پیشگیری نوسانهای نقطه پایانی اتصال آرنج نزدیک نقطه تنظیم ضروری است . که بوسیلة قوة جبری (سکون) اتصالها بوجود آمده بود .